Following the Portuaguese the British also landed in South Indian Peninsula. Their aim was to find out trade possibilities in spice, expensive gems and other resources in this land. The British constructed factories at Tellicherry, Vizhinjam in 1644, at Anchengo in 1684 along with a fort, and also established trade centers. By 1806 Cochin, Travancore and Malabar in the north were brought under the British Madras Presidency. The British Supremacy however witnessed many social and cultural changes in Kerala. Slavery was gradually being eradicated. English missionaries brought great alterations and improvements in the livelihood of the people. During this epoch numerous educational institutions and hospitals were raised. Infrastructure was developed including railway lines, roads and bridges. Thus Kerala owe its modernization to the British to a great extent. But the British extracted all the resources of the country and carried on with their ruthless exploitation and colonization and hence faced tremendous oppositions from Kerala masses and throughout the country. Numerous revolts took place during the late 18th and early 19th century.